Knitting Abbreviation Guide

Understanding knitting abbreviations can seem intimidating as a new knitter. Even if you have been knitting for years, reading a knit pattern can seem like a whole new language that you need to learn. Here's a list of knitting abbreviations to help guide any terms that you find in patterns that you may not yet know.

*repeat the instructions following the single asterisk as directed.

alt: alternate.

approx.: approximately.

beg: beginning.
bet: between.
blo: back loop only.
bo: bind off.
cc: contrasting color.
circ: circular.
cn: cable needle.
co: cast on.
cont: continue.
dec: decrease.
dpns: double pointed needles.
est: established.
fl: front loop(s).

fo: fasten off.

foll: following.
inc: increase.
incl: including.
inc(s): increase(s).
ktbl: knit through back loop.
k: knit.
k1b: knit 1 below.
kfb: knit one front and back; a single-stitch increase.
k1tbl: knit one through the back loop.
k2tog: knit two together.
kfb: knit into front and back of stitch.
kwise: knitwise, as if to knit.
lh: left hand.
lli: left lifted increase (insert left needle into top of stitch one row below first stitch on right needle, knit this loop).
lp(s): loop(s).
m: marker.
m1: make 1 stitch.
1ml: make one left (insert left needle from front to back under strand between last stitch worked and next stitch on left needle; knit this loop through back).
m1p: make one purlwise (insert left needle from back to front under strand between last stitch worked and next stitch on left needle; purl this loop through the front).
m1r: make one right (insert left needle from back to front under strand between last stitch worked and next stitch on left needle; knit this loop through front).
mb: make bobble. A bobble is a three-dimensional stitch made by working multiple increases in one stitch, sometimes working a few rows, and then decreasing back to one stitch.
mc: main color.

meas: measures.

ndl(s): needle(s).
p or P: purl.
p tbl: purl through back loop.
p1b: purl 1 below.
p1tbl: purl one through the back loop.
p2sso: pass two slipped stitches over.
p2tog tbl: purl 2 stitches together through the back loop; an one-stitch decrease.
p2tog: purl two together.
p2tog: purl 2 stitches together (one stitch decrease).
p3tog: purl 3 stitches together (two stitch decrease).
patt(s): pattern(s).
pfb: purl into the front and back of a stitch (one stitch increase).
pm: place marker.
pnso: pass next stitch over.
prev: previous.
psso: pass slipped stitch over.
pwise: purlwise, as if to purl.
rem: remaining.
rep: repeat.
rep(s): repeat(s).
rh: right hand.
rli: right lifted increase (insert right needle into top of stitch one row below next stitch on left needle, knit this loop).
rnd(s): round(s).
rs: right side.
s2kp: slip two tog, knit one, pass two slip stitches over.
sk: skip.
sk2p: slip 1, knit 2 together, pass slip stitch over (psso), then knit 2 together (two stitch decrease).
skp: slip, knit, pass stitch over (one stitch decrease).
sl st: slip stitch(es).
sl: slip.
sl1, k1, ppso: slip one, knit one, pass slipped stitch over (one stitch decrease).
sl1k: slip 1 knitwise.
sl1p: slip 1 purlwise.
sm: slip marker (slip marker from left needle to right needle).
ssk: slip, slip, knit these 2 stitches together; a left-slanting (one stitch decrease).
ssp: slip, slip, purl (slip two stitches purlwise, insert left needle behind two slipped stitches, purl two slipped stitches together).
sssk: slip, slip, slip, knit (slip three stitches knitwise, insert left needle in front of three slipped stitches, knit three slipped stitches together).
sssp: slip, slip, slip purl (slip three stitches purlwise, insert left needle behind three slipped stitches, purl three slipped stitches together).
st st: stockinette stitch (when working flat, knit all RS rows, purl all WS rows; when working in the round, knit all stitches).

st(s): stitch(es).

tbl: through back loop.
tog: together.
w&t: wrap next stitch and turn work.
ws: wrong side.
wyib—with yarn in back.
wyif: with yarn in front.
yb (or ybk): yarn to the back.
yf (or yfwd)—yarn to the front (or forward).
yf or yfwd: yarn forward.
yo twice; yo2: yarn over two times.
yo: yarn over. One stitch increase made by wrapping the yarn around the needle.

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